White Papers and Technical Notes


[pdf] AC & DC Power Protection For Communication Sites - The incidence of damage to equipment in general is higher from power line surges than by any other I/O port. This is not to say more energy comes through the power line, just that the damage is more v...
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[pdf] Coaxial Cable Lightning Protectors - Antenna manufacturers utilize shunt-fed dc grounded antennas as a means of impedance matching and providing some form of lightning protection to their customers. It has been proven that these antennas...
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[pdf] Coaxial Cable Protection - Skin effect is a physical phenomenon that relates to the limited penetration into a conductor of a RF signal, according to its frequency. This effect is present in coax cable, keeping the RF signal in...
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[pdf] Coaxial Cable Protection - Corrosion Protection for Tower Structures. Most people have a tendency to use copper as for grounding because it is a good conductor, and one of the more noble metals. However, it does have a signific...
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[pdf] Dissimilar Metals may Take Away Your Protection - There are many different types of metals and each has desirable properties. However, when two dissimilar metals are joined to make an electrical connection there can be problems. Corrosion will begin ...
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[pdf] Earth Ground Measurements - Any properly applied lightning protection device is only as effective as the ground system attached to it! Ground resistance (impedance) is usually measured using the 3-stake fall of potential metho...
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[pdf] Equipment Rack Grounding - Equipment racks and cabinets can provide an unwanted path for lightning surge energy. The common practice of bringing the antenna cable into the top of the cabinet and securing (bolting) the cabinet t...
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[pdf] Fuse Confusion - Fuses react very differently to transient surge current as opposed to sustained overload current conditions. Fuses and fusing concerns become complex when contained within surge suppression equipment....
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[pdf] GPS Jamming -

 Global Positioning System - GPS - has infiltrated modern life to such an extent that many people, systems and operations rely on its error-free functioning. GPS is used for navigation, s...
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[pdf] GPS Lightning Protection and Antenna Placement - The first consideration for GPS antenna placement is a clear view of the sky, preferably 360 degrees. In the usual installation, the GPS antenna is located low and close to the equipment building roof...
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